There is a lot more that goes into audio/sound than I had originally thought. Understanding that there are different approaches to audio is important. Realism is used when the audio is intended to enhance the illusion of reality the visual is trying to achieve. Modernist audio is created separately from visuals. Postmodernism is focused entirely on engaging the audience and involving them in the production.
As with most elements of digital production, there are many elements and items necessary for high-quality production. Microphone selection is very important and each type of mic has a specific purpose. They are classified by transducer elements. Transducer are devices that change one form of energy into another form of energy. A dynamic mic contains a moving coil that is connected to another vibrating piece that is suspended between two magnetic poles. A ribbon mic is a narrow strip of foil that is also suspended in a magnetic field. Each of these mics contain many different elements that set them apart and make them each useful in their own way.
A microphone we are most familiar is a hand mic. It is typically mounted but the largest issue is controlling the mic cable. Desk mics are also common. They are usually placed in a permanent position. A stand mic is supported by a pole and has less cord interference than a hand mic and can be placed anywhere, typically in front of the performer. There are many other types of mic including a lavaliere mic and off-camera mics.
Mixing and combining sounds requires a console. An audio console has a series of faders. These faders control the volume and level of the signal input. Commonly, audio consoles and mixers have two types of audio inputs.